Throughout their history, professional sports leagues, including the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League, have generated high-profile antitrust litigation. The nascent sport of mixed martial arts now looks as if it will join that list, as two MMA fighters have brought a putative class action in the Northern District of California against Zuffa, LLC, an MMA fight promotion company that does business as Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). Le v. Zuffa, Case No. 5:14-cv-05484 (N.D. Cal., filed Dec. 16, 2014).
MMA fighters, like boxers, are represented by promoters who schedule bouts for their fighters, secure a venue to host the bout, contract for television or pay-per-view broadcasting rights, secure advertisers, and market the bout. The promoters then pay the MMA fighters a percentage of the proceeds collected from the bout. According to the complaint, Zuffa has violated Section 2 of the Sherman Act by monopolizing the market for promoting MMA bouts, and monopsonizing the market for representing elite MMA fighters. Thus, the top MMA fighters are forced to contract with UFC to promote their bouts or forgo any chance of becoming successful MMA fighters.